Chart with characters in the Roman alphabet (for English, German, and other European readers), Japanese, Chinese, Russian, and Hebrew. A panel in the center replaces the alphabetic characters with symbols for children and adults who were illiterate or who could not read

Beautiful multilingual eye examination chart of the early 1900s San Francisco

112 years ago, optometry was a growing profession. In diverse cities like San Francisco, however, the eye chart commonplace in western countries today could not suffice.